The conventional manufacture of ceramic tiles involves temperatures of around 1200°C for 1-5 hours. This equates to a large amount of CO2 emissions which is compounded for coal-powered countries. Emma Horn’s solution is bio-tiles using microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation. It involves a negligible energy input and is highly scalable by 3D printer. The waste aggregate and formation of nacre provide sustainable and aesthetic bio-tiles.

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