The nominating institution University of Edinburgh on the breakthrough:

New X-ray Free-Electron Lasers allow us to track the motion of atoms and capture the rearrangement of electrons as molecules absorb light or undergo chemical reactions. This powerful imaging technique creates sharp and detailed movies that unveil how molecular machines function, opening the door to a future where we engineer the nanoworld. Recent experiments have revealed how chemical bonds are broken and how the shape of the electron cloud in a molecule changes when it interacts with light.

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