The nominating institution SLAC Stanford on the breakthrough:

A critical challenge in understanding function in the human brain is lack of access to human brain tissue for investigation by imaging, recording, and stimulation. We developed innovative technologies that allow us to instruct stem cells to become 3D cellular structures resembling specific human brain regions. We then assemble them in various combinations to create functioning neural circuits in assembloids. Our work uncovers unique brain features and mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease.